They then stand for people or abstract objects (things that you can‘t touch).
They are really nouns but are declined like adjectives.
Normal Sentence: Article + Adjective/Participle + Noun
When using the adjective/participle as a noun, remove the original noun:
We dropped the noun „Freund“ after the adjective because it´s obvious. Therefore the adjective becomes a noun and the first letter gets capitalized. Despite the fact that the adjective is a noun now it keeps its adjective declension.
The noun is only dropped when it´s obvious or universally known. Nouns like “Mensch”, “Frau” and “Mann” are dropped very often because most often we know who we are talking about.
|Adjective||Adjective as Noun||Adjective||Adjective as Noun|
|alt||der Alte||dumm||der Dumme|
|arbeitslos||die Arbeitslose||gut||das Gute|
|bekannt||der Bekannte||klein||die Kleine|
|blond||die Blonde||neu||das Neue|
|böse||das Böse||krank||der Kranke|
|deutsch||der Deutsche||tot||die Tote|
|Present Participle||Participle as Noun||Past Participle||Participle as Noun|
|anwesend||der Anwesende||angestellt||der Angestellte|
|abwesend||die Abwesende||betrunken||der Betrunkene|
|reisend||der Reisende||gefangen||die Gefangene|
|vorsitzend||die Vorsitzende||prostituiert||die Prostituierte|
|überlebend||der Überlebende||vermisst||der Vermisste|
*All endings according to Nominative Case
When adjectives or participles are used as nouns, the original noun (normally „Mann“, „Frau“, „Mensch“) is left out because it is obvious or universally known.
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