They can‘t be the answer to a question.
They make the language more „lively“, can make an entire sentence negative or positive, and show feeling.
They are especially often used in spoken language.
You can always leave them out.
Depending on the particle, the strengthening or weakening can be small or large.
The most important ones: wenig, nicht so, gar nicht, überhaupt nicht, etwas, einigermaßen, fast, ziemlich, so, sehr, ausgesprochen, besonders, ungemein, überaus, äußerst, zutiefst, höchst, zu
Examples – Intensifying Particles:
Modal particles are also known as „shading particles“ because they show different shades of meanings of other words.
They are mainly used in spoken language and show the feelings, attitude, and mood of the speaker.
Modal particles are extremely hard to understand and even harder to use for someone who isn´t a native German speaker. In Lecture Modal Particles I try to explain it a bit further.
Focus particles emphasize or highlight something important.
Focus particles are related to a specific part of the sentence and normally come before the part that is to be highlighted.
The most important ones: wenig, etwas, einigermaßen, fast, ziemlich, so, sehr, ausgesprochen, besonders, ungemein, überaus, äußerst, zutiefst, höchst, zu
Focus Particles – Examples:
The negation word „nicht“ is a particle.
Speech particles include calls, answers, and greetings.
Examples: ja, nein, hm, gern, okay, gut, genau, richtig, …
Interjections are expressions that show a state of mind.
Examples: oh, he!, schade!, pfui!, hurra!, igitt!, juhu!, au!, aua!, autsch! uh!, ah!, ach!, huch!, oho!, hoppla!, oje!, hm!, hihi!, ätsch!, hui!, puh!, uff!, pff!, phh! hü!, hott!, …
Onomatopoeia describes words that model the sounds and noises they represent.
They are often found in comics.
Examples: kikeriki, wau, wuff, miau, quak, peng, bumm, boing, tatütata, ticktack; plumps, klirr, schwupps, zack, ruckzuck, puff, dong, klong, ratsch, hui, bums, rums, fump, blub-blub, schnipp, hatschi, …
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